PORTRAIT SIOUX INDIAN EARLY RUDIE ADAMS VERY RARE SOUTH DAKOTA SIGNED OIL BOARD

PORTRAIT SIOUX INDIAN EARLY RUDIE ADAMS VERY RARE SOUTH DAKOTA SIGNED OIL BOARD

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eBay A c1934 oil on board by Sioux Indian artist Rudie Adams. His work is exceedingly rare. This painting is hand signed on the lower right and measures approximately 10 1/4" x 16" inches. The painting is in need of restoration and is being sold as-is with no returns. NOTE:"Memorial Monument of Chief Red Cloud" By Rudie Adams, 1939 Pencil and ink on paper 15" x 9 1/2" is in the.. National Archives and Records Administration -- Central Plains Region, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs"Memorial Monument of Chief Red Cloud" In September 1939 sculptor Rudie Adams proposed a large sculpture memorializing Red Cloud, the Oglala Sioux warrior and chief, in Washington, DC. In his letter accompanying the proposal, Adams described the symbolism in his design. An eagle, signifying the power of the Sioux, stands guard over the Western Hemisphere. The Sioux's power, however, "broken by agreements" with the U.S. Government, is signified by the broken bow and the arrow protruding from the eagle. Red Cloud appeals to the tribe to understand the progress for future generations through education, and a Sioux boy looks happily toward a bright future when he is told that schooling is available. Adams apparently wanted to raise the $6,000 to erect his sculpture by donations from the tribe. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs responded by referring Adams' plan to the Oglala Tribal Council but also warned that "the Pine Ridge Sioux are a poor people . . . and can ill afford to make any contributions such as you propose." Adams design was never completed.It is beleived the Sioux Indians actually came to North America from the continent of Asia thousands of years ago.Sioux IndiansThe Sioux Indians actually came to North America from the continent of Asia. The name Sioux actually means “little snake”, which was given to the tribe by the Chippewa Indians. The features of Sioux Indians that particularly stand out is their long, straight jet-black hair, representative of people descending from Asia.Generally, the Sioux Indians were nomadic, meaning that they never really stayed in one place for a very long amount of time. Typically they followed the pattern of the buffalo, assuring them that there would be food and clothing wherever they traveled. The Spanish introduced horses to the Sioux in the 1500’s. Once they began to use horses as a means of carrying articles and transportation, life became much easier, particularly since they were living a nomadic lifestyle. The tribe had chiefs designated for various aspects of life, including war, civil rules, and of course, medicine men. The men of the tribe could become chiefs eventually if they demonstrated strong warrior skills.Once the 1860’s came around, the fight over land got quite intense. The Sioux Indians battled the white man in order to keep their land. Eventually, the United States government signed a treaty allowing them to keep a portion of the land, otherwise known as a reservation. Once the gold rush took place, rumors abounded that there was gold located on Sioux land. Again, a battle ensued and the Sioux joined up with the Cheyenne tribe. The battle was led by the legendary Sitting Bull. Over the next couple of decades, the Sioux Indians traveled to the Dakotas. They took place in the famous battle known as Custer’s Last Stand, and ended up killing all of the soldiers that attempted to attack them. Unfortunately in 1891 the Battle of Wounded Knee occurred, and the Sioux lost the battle, losing many people in the fray. Today, there are about 30,000 Sioux Indians living in South Dakota, and still other in Nebraska, Montana, and Canada.The Sioux /suː/ also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota.The Santee Dakota (Isáŋyathi; "Knife") reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa. The Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna; "Village-at-the-end" and "Little village-at-the-end"), collectively also referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, and have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota.[2] The actual Nakota are the Assiniboine and Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota, also called Teton (Thítȟuŋwaŋ; possibly "Dwellers on the prairie"), are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture.Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States; and Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, and Alberta in Canada.Contents 1 Names2 History2.1 First contact with Europeans2.2 Relationship with French traders2.3 Relationship with Pawnees2.4 Dakota War of 18622.5 Red Cloud's War2.6 Great Sioux War of 18762.7 Wounded Knee Massacre3 Reservations and reserves4 Modern reservations, reserves, and communities5 20th century activism5.1 Wounded Knee incident5.2 Republic of Lakotah6 Current activism6.1 Protest against the Dakota Access oil pipeline7 Political organization8 Religion9 Linguistics10 Music11 Modern geographic divisions11.1 Santee (Isáŋyathi or Eastern Dakota)11.2 Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yankton-Yanktonai or Western Dakota)11.3 Lakota (Teton or Thítȟuŋwaŋ)12 Ethnic divisions13 In popular media14 Notable Sioux14.1 Historical14.2 Contemporary14.2.1 By individual tribe15 Legacy16 See also17 References18 Further reading19 External linksNamesThe name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640.[3] The name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes" (compare nadowe "big snakes", used for the Iroquois).[4] The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker.[5] The Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake (massasauga, Sistrurus).[6] An alternative explanation is derivation from an (Algonquian) exonym na·towe·ssiw (plural na·towe·ssiwak), from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language".[5] The current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag (singular Bwaan), meaning "roasters".[7][8] Presumably, this refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past.Some of the tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, and the Oglala often use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST. The alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper.[3]The historical Sioux referred to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (pronounced [oˈtʃʰetʰi ʃaˈkowĩ]), meaning "Seven Council Fires". Each fire was a symbol of an oyate (people or nation). The seven nations that comprise the Sioux are: Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ (Mdewakanton), Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ (Wahpeton), Waȟpékhute (Wahpekute), Sisíthuŋwaŋ (Sisseton), the Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ (Yankton), Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yanktonai), and the Thítȟuŋwaŋ (Teton or Lakota).[3] The Seven Council Fires would assemble each summer to hold council, renew kinships, decide tribal matters, and participate in the Sun Dance.[9] The seven divisions would select four leaders known as Wičháša Yatápika from among the leaders of each division.[9] Being one of the four leaders was considered the highest honor for a leader; however, the annual gathering meant the majority of tribal administration was cared for by the usual leaders of each division. The last meeting of the Seven Council Fires was in 1850.[9]Today the Teton, Santee (mixture of the four Dakota tribes) and the Minnesota Dakota, and Yankton/Yanktonai are usually known, respectively, as the Lakota, Eastern Dakota, or Western Dakota.[3][10] In any of the three main dialects, Lakota or Dakota translate to mean "friend" or "ally", referring to the alliance that once bound the Great Sioux Nation.HistoryFirst contact with EuropeansThe Dakota are first recorded to have resided at the source of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes during the seventeenth century.[11] They were dispersed west in 1659 due to warfare with the Iroquois. By 1700 the Dakota Sioux were living in Wisconsin and Minnesota, at this time they exterminated the Wicosawan, another Siouan people in 1710. A split of branch known as the Lakota had migrated to present-day South Dakota.[12] Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants.[13] The French were trying to gain advantage in the struggle for the North American fur trade against the English, who had recently established the Hudson's Bay Company.Relationship with French tradersThe first recorded encounter between the Sioux and the French occurred when Radisson and Groseilliers reached what is now Wisconsin during the winter of 1659–60. Later visiting French traders and missionaries included Claude-Jean Allouez, Daniel Greysolon Duluth, and Pierre-Charles Le Sueur who wintered with Dakota bands in early 1700.[14] In 1736 a group of Sioux killed Jean Baptiste de La Vérendrye and twenty other men on an island in Lake of the Woods.[15] However, trade with the French continued until after the French gave up North America in 1763.Relationship with PawneesAuthor and historian Mark van de Logt wrote: "Although military historians tend to reserve the concept of "total war" for conflicts between modern industrial nations, the term nevertheless most closely approaches the state of affairs between the Pawnees and the Sioux and Cheyennes. Both sides directed their actions not solely against warrior-combatants but against the people as a whole. Noncombatants were legitimate targets. ... It is within this context that the military service of the Pawnee Scouts must be viewed."[16]The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux.[17]Dakota War of 1862Main article: Dakota War of 1862Siege of New Ulm, August 19, 1862.Drawing of the mass hanging of Dakota in Mankato, MinnesotaBy 1862, shortly after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the federal payment was late. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Santee and one trader, Andrew Myrick, went so far as to say, "If they're hungry, let them eat grass."[18] On August 17, 1862 the Dakota War began when a few Santee men murdered a white farmer and most of his family. They inspired further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River. The Santee attacked the trading post. Later settlers found Myrick among the dead with his mouth stuffed full of grass.[19]On November 5, 1862 in Minnesota, in courts-martial, 303 Santee Sioux were found guilty of rape and murder of hundreds of American settlers. They were sentenced to be hanged. No attorneys or witnesses were allowed as a defense for the accused, and many were convicted in less than five minutes of court time with the judge.[20] President Abraham Lincoln commuted the death sentences of 284 of the warriors, while signing off on the hanging of 38 Santee men on December 26, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota. It was the largest mass-execution in U.S. history, on US soil.[21]Afterwards, the US suspended treaty annuities to the Dakota for four years and awarded the money to the white victims and their families. The men remanded by order of President Lincoln were sent to a prison in Iowa, where more than half died.[20]During and after the revolt, many Santee and their kin fled Minnesota and Eastern Dakota to Canada, or settled in the James River Valley in a short-lived reservation before being forced to move to Crow Creek Reservation on the east bank of the Missouri.[20] A few joined the Yanktonai and moved further west to join with the Lakota bands to continue their struggle against the United States military.[20]Others were able to remain in Minnesota and the east, in small reservations existing into the 21st century, including Sisseton-Wahpeton, Flandreau, and Devils Lake (Spirit Lake or Fort Totten) Reservations in the Dakotas. Some ended up in Nebraska, where the Santee Sioux Reservation today has a reservation on the south bank of the Missouri.Those who fled to Canada now have descendants residing on nine small Dakota Reserves, five of which are located in Manitoba (Sioux Valley, Long Plain, Dakota Tipi, Birdtail Creek, and Oak Lake [Pipestone]) and the remaining four (Standing Buffalo, Moose Woods [White Cap], Round Plain [Wahpeton], and Wood Mountain) in Saskatchewan.Red Cloud's WarMain article: Red Cloud's WarRed Cloud's War (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States Army in the Wyoming Territory and the Montana Territory from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the Powder River Country in north central Wyoming.The war is named after Red Cloud, a prominent Sioux chief who led the war against the United States following encroachment into the area by the U.S. military. The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Sioux victory in the war led to their temporarily preserving their control of the Powder River country.[22]Great Sioux War of 1876Main article: Great Sioux War of 1876The Great Sioux War of 1876 comprised a series of battles between the Lakota and allied tribes such as the Cheyenne against the United States military. The earliest engagement was the Battle of Powder River, and the final battle was the Wolf Mountain. Included are the Battle of the Rosebud, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Battle of Warbonnet Creek, Battle of Slim Buttes, Battle of Cedar Creek, and the Dull Knife Fight. The Great Sioux War of 1876–77 was also known as the Black Hills War, and was centered on the Lakota tribes of the Sioux, although several[who?] natives believe that the primary target of the United States military was the Northern Cheyenne tribe. The series of battles occurred in Montana territory, Dakota territory, and Wyoming territory, and resulted in a victory for the United States military.Wounded Knee MassacreMain article: Wounded Knee MassacreMass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee.The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States. It was described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.[23]On December 29, 1890, five hundred troops of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece capable of rapid fire), surrounded an encampment of the Lakota bands of the Miniconjou and Hunkpapa[24] with orders to escort them to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska.By the time it was over, 25 troopers and more than 150 Lakota Sioux lay dead, including men, women, and children. It remains unknown which side was responsible for the first shot; some of the soldiers are believed to have been the victims of "friendly fire" because the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions.[25] Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, many of whom may have died from hypothermia.[26]Reservations and reservesLocation of Sioux tribes prior to 1770 (dark green) and their current reservations (orange) in the USGreat Sioux Reservation, 1888; established by Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)In the late 19th century, railroads wanted to build tracks through Indian lands. The railroad companies hired hunters to exterminate the bison herds, the Plains Indians' primary food supply. The Dakota and Lakota were forced to accept US-defined reservations in exchange for the rest of their lands and farming and ranching of domestic cattle, as opposed to a nomadic, hunting economy. During the first years of the Reservation Era, the Sioux people depended upon annual federal payments guaranteed by treaty for survival.In Minnesota, the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1851 left the Dakota with a reservation 20 miles (32 km) wide on each side of the Minnesota River.Today, half of all enrolled Sioux in the United States live off reservation. Enrolled members in any of the Sioux tribes in the United States are required to have ancestry that is at least 1/4 degree Sioux (the equivalent to one grandparent).[27]In Canada, the Canadian government recognizes the tribal community as First Nations. The land holdings of these First Nations are called Indian reserves.Modern reservations, reserves, and communitiesReserve/Reservation[3] Community Bands residing LocationFort Peck Indian Reservation Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes Hunkpapa, Upper Yanktonai (Pabaksa), Sisseton, Wahpeton, and the Hudesabina (Red Bottom), Wadopabina (Canoe Paddler), Wadopahnatonwan (Canoe Paddlers Who Live on the Prairie), Sahiyaiyeskabi (Plains Cree-Speakers), Inyantonwanbina (Stone People), and Fat Horse Band of the Assiniboine Montana, USSpirit Lake Reservation(Formerly Devil's Lake Reservation)Spirit Lake Tribe(Mni Wakan Oyate)Wahpeton, Sisseton, Upper Yanktonai North Dakota, USStanding Rock Indian Reservation Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Upper Yanktonai, Hunkpapa North Dakota, South Dakota, USLake Traverse Indian Reservation Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Sisseton, Wahpeton South Dakota, USFlandreau Indian Reservation Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Wahpeton South Dakota, USCheyenne River Indian Reservation Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Minneconjou, Blackfoot, Two Kettle, Sans Arc South Dakota, USCrow Creek Indian Reservation Crow Creek Sioux Tribe Lower Yanktonai South Dakota, USLower Brule Indian Reservation Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Brulé South Dakota, USYankton Sioux Indian Reservation Yankton Sioux Tribe Yankton South Dakota, USPine Ridge Indian Reservation Oglala Lakota Oglala, few Brulé South Dakota, USRosebud Indian Reservation Rosebud Sioux Tribe (also as Sicangu Lakota or Upper Brulé Sioux Nation)(Sičháŋǧu Oyate)Sićangu (Brulé), few Oglala South Dakota, USUpper Sioux Indian Reservation Upper Sioux Community(Pejuhutazizi Oyate)Mdewakanton, Sisseton, Wahpeton Minnesota, USLower Sioux Indian Reservation Lower Sioux Indian Community Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Minnesota, USShakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation(Formerly Prior Lake Indian Reservation)Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Minnesota, USPrairie Island Indian Community Prairie Island Indian Community Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Minnesota, USSantee Indian Reservation Santee Sioux Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Nebraska, USSioux Valley Dakota Nation Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Sioux Valley First Nation Sisseton, Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, Wahpekute Manitoba, CanadaDakota Plains Indian Reserve 6A Dakota Plains First Nation Wahpeton, Sisseton Manitoba, CanadaDakota Tipi 1 Reserve Dakota Tipi First Nation Wahpeton Manitoba, CanadaBirdtail Creek 57 Reserve, Birdtail Hay Lands 57A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Birdtail Sioux First Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Yanktonai Manitoba, CanadaCanupawakpa Dakota First Nation, Oak Lake 59A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation Wahpekute, Wahpeton, Yanktonai Manitoba, CanadaStanding Buffalo 78 Reserve Standing Buffalo Dakota First Nation Sisseton, Wahpeton Saskatchewan, CanadaWhitecap Reserve Whitecap Dakota First Nation Wahpeton, Sisseton Saskatchewan, CanadaWood Mountain 160 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reserve No. 77* Wood Mountain Assiniboine (Nakota), Hunkpapa Saskatchewan, CanadaReserves shared with other First Nations20th century activismWounded Knee incidentMain article: Wounded Knee incidentThe Wounded Knee incident began February 27, 1973 when the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota was seized by followers of the American Indian Movement. The occupiers controlled the town for 71 days while various state and federal law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Marshals Service laid siege. Two members of A.I.M. were killed by gunfire during the incident.Republic of LakotahMain article: Republic of LakotahThe Lakota Freedom Delegation, a group of controversial Native American activists, declared on December 19, 2007 the Lakota were withdrawing from all treaties signed with the United States to regain sovereignty over their nation. One of the activists, Russell Means, claimed that the action is legal and cites natural, international and US law.[28] The group considers Lakota to be a sovereign nation, although as yet the state is generally unrecognized. The proposed borders reclaim thousands of square kilometres of North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska and Montana.[29]Current activismThe Lakota made national news when NPR's "Lost Children, Shattered Families  investigative story aired. It exposed what many critics consider to be the "kidnapping" of Lakota children from their homes by the state of South Dakota's Department of Social Services (D.S.S.). Lakota activists such as Madonna Thunder Hawk and Chase Iron Eyes, along with the People's Law Project, have alleged that Lakota grandmothers are illegally denied the right to foster their own grandchildren. They are currently working to redirect federal funding away from the state of South Dakota's D.S.S. to new tribal foster care programs. This would be a historic shift away from the state's traditional control over Lakota foster children.Demonstration in support of Standing Rock to stop DAPL occurred all over the world throughout 2016 and in March 2017 in Washington, DCProtest against the Dakota Access oil pipelineMain article: Dakota Access Pipeline protestsIn the summer of 2016, Sioux Indians and the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe began a protest against construction of the Dakota Access oil pipeline, also known as the Bakken pipeline, which, if completed, is designed to carry hydrofracked crude oil from the Bakken oil fields of North Dakota to the oil storage and transfer hub of Patoka, Illinois.[30] The pipeline travels only half a mile north of the Standing Rock Sioux reservation and is designed to pass underneath the Missouri River and upstream of the reservation, causing many concerns over the tribe's drinking water safety, environmental protection, and harmful impacts on culture.[31][32] The pipeline company claims that the pipeline will provide jobs, reduce American dependence on foreign oil and reduce the price of gas.[33]The conflict sparked a nationwide debate and much news media coverage. Thousands of indigenous and non-indigenous supporters joined the protest, and several camp sites were set up south of the construction zone. The protest was peaceful, and alcohol, drugs and firearms were not allowed at the campsite or the protest site.[34] On August 23, Standing Rock Sioux Tribe released a list of 87 tribal governments who wrote resolutions, proclamations and letters of support stating their solidarity with Standing Rock and the Sioux people.[35] Since then, many more Native American organizations, environmental groups and civil rights groups have joined the effort in North Dakota, including the Black Lives Matter movement, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, the 2016 Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein and her running mate Ajamu Baraka, and many more.[36] The Washington Post called it a "National movement for Native Americans."[37]Political organizationOglala Lakota TipiThe historical political organization was based on individual participation and the cooperation of many to sustain the tribe's way of life. Leaders were chosen based upon noble birth and demonstrations of chiefly virtues, such as bravery, fortitude, generosity, and wisdom.[9]Political leaders were members of the Načá Omníčiye society and decided matters of tribal hunts, camp movements, whether to make war or peace with their neighbors, or any other community action.[38]Societies were similar to fraternities; men joined to raise their position in the tribe. Societies were composed of smaller clans and varied in number among the seven divisions.[9] There were two types of societies: Akíčhita, for the younger men, and Načá, for elders and former leaders.[9]Akíčhita (Warrior) societies existed to train warriors, hunters, and to police the community.[38] There were many smaller Akíčhita societies, including the Kit-Fox, Strong Heart, Elk, and so on.[38]Leaders in the Načá societies, per Načá Omníčiye, were the tribal elders and leaders. They elected seven to ten men, depending on the division, each referred to as Wičháša Itȟáŋčhaŋ ("chief man"). Each Wičháša Itȟáŋčhaŋ interpreted and enforced the decisions of the Načá.[38]The Wičháša Itȟáŋčhaŋ would elect two to four Shirt Wearers, who were the voice of the society. They settled quarrels among families and also foreign nations.[9] Shirt Wearers were often young men from families with hereditary claims of leadership. However, men with obscure parents who displayed outstanding leaderships skills and had earned the respect of the community might also be elected. Crazy Horse is an example of a common-born "Shirt Wearer".[9]A Wakíčhuŋza ("Pipe Holder") ranked below the "Shirt Wearers". The Pipe Holders regulated peace ceremonies, selected camp locations, and supervised the Akíčhita societies during buffalo hunts.[38]ReligionThe Sioux tribe, like many North American tribal religions, "were performative, oral, and variable within each community as each generation drew upon its tradition in order to create its own religious forms, derived from experience".[39] "Aboriginal Indian Religions, North of Mexico, were locally produced modes of relationships between communities of associated individuals and their ultimate sources of life... wind, sun, thunderers, animals, corn, etc".[39] Sioux Nation religious beliefs revolve around the Wakan Tanka, which is synonymous with the Great Spirit. Two of their central religious ceremonies are the Sun Dance and the Ghost Dance.[40] The Sioux Nation was one of the few Native American peoples who practiced the Sun Dance and the Ghost Dance.LinguisticsMain articles: Sioux language, Lakota language, and Dakota languageChief Bone Necklace an Oglala Lakota from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (1899)The Sioux comprise three closely related language groups:Eastern Dakota (also known as Santee-Sisseton or Dakhóta)Santee (Isáŋyáthi: Bdewákhathuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute)Sisseton (Sisíthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ)Western Dakota (or Yankton-Yanktonai or Dakȟóta)Yankton (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ)Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna)Lakota (or Lakȟóta, Teton, Teton Sioux)The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai.[6] However, the latest studies[10][41] show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name roughly the same as the Santee (i.e. Dakȟóta).These later studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Lakota, Western Dakota (Yankton-Yanktonai) and Eastern Dakota (Santee-Sisseton). Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóta or Nakhóda[10] (cf. Nakota).The term Dakota has also been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc. This was mainly because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived.[9]MusicMain article: Sioux musicModern geographic divisionsFuneral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)The Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Montana in the United States; and in Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada.The earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin.[6] After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country.[38]Santee (Isáŋyathi or Eastern Dakota)The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio, then to Minnesota. Some came up from the Santee River and Lake Marion, area of South Carolina. The Santee River was named after them, and some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting, fishing and farming.Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward. The US gave the name "Dakota Territory" to the northern expanse west of the Mississippi River and up to its headwaters.[6]Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yankton-Yanktonai or Western Dakota)The Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, also known by the anglicized spelling Yankton (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ: "End village") and Yanktonai (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna: "Little end village") divisions consist of two bands or two of the seven council fires. According to Nasunatanka and Matononpa in 1880, the Yanktonai are divided into two sub-groups known as the Upper Yanktonai and the Lower Yanktonai (Hunkpatina).[6]They were involved in quarrying pipestone. The Yankton-Yanktonai moved into northern Minnesota. In the 18th century, they were recorded as living in the Mankato region of Minnesota.[42]Lakota (Teton or Thítȟuŋwaŋ)Main article: Lakota peopleThe Sioux likely obtained horses sometime during the seventeenth century (although some historians date the arrival of horses in South Dakota to 1720, and credit the Cheyenne with introducing horse culture to the Lakota). The Teton (Lakota) division of the Sioux emerged as a result of this introduction. Dominating the northern Great Plains with their light cavalry, the western Sioux quickly expanded their territory further to the Rocky Mountains (which they call Heska, "white mountains"). The Lakota once subsisted on the bison hunt, and on corn. They acquired corn mostly through trade with the eastern Sioux and their linguistic cousins, the Mandan and Hidatsa along the Missouri River.[6] The name Teton or Thítȟuŋwaŋ is archaic among the people, who prefer to call themselves Lakȟóta.[10]Ethnic divisionsDakota, Nakota, and Lakota historic distributionSioux women's beaded, hide dressSioux cradleboardShirt for war chief, 19th century, Brooklyn MuseumThe Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, and further branched into bands.The Santee live on reservations, reserves, and communities in Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Canada. However, after the Dakota war of 1862 many Santee were sent to Crow Creek Indian Reservation and in 1864 some from the Crow Creek Reservation were sent to the Santee Sioux Reservation.Most of the Yanktons live on the Yankton Indian Reservation in southeastern South Dakota. Some Yankton live on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation and Crow Creek Indian Reservation. The Yanktonai are divided into Lower Yanktonai, who occupy the Crow Creek Reservation; and Upper Yanktonai, who live in the northern part of Standing Rock Indian Reservation, on the Spirit Lake Tribe in central North Dakota, and in the eastern half of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. In addition, they reside at several Canadian reserves, including Birdtail, Oak Lake, and Moose Woods.[10]The Lakota are the westernmost of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota.Today, many Sioux also live outside their reservations.Santee division (Eastern Dakota) (Isáŋyathi)[10]Mdewakantonwan (Bdewékhaŋthuŋwaŋ "Spirit Lake Village")[10]notable persons: Little CrowSisseton (Sisíthuŋwaŋ, perhaps meaning "Fishing Grounds Village")Wahpekute (Waȟpékhute, "Leaf Archers")[10]notable persons: InkpadutaWahpetonwan (Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, "Leaf Village")[10]Yankton-Yanktonai division (Western Dakota) (Wičhíyena)Yankton (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ, "End Village")[10]Yanktonai (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, "Little End Village")[10]Upper YanktonaiUnkpatina[43] or Lower Yanktonainotable persons: Wanata, War EagleTeton division (Lakota) (Thítȟuŋwaŋ,[10] perhaps meaning "Dwellers on the Prairie"):Oglála (perhaps meaning "Those Who Scatter Their Own")notable persons: Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Black Elk, Blue Horse, Iron Tail, Flying Hawk and Billy Mills (Olympian)Hunkpapa (Húŋkpapȟa,[10] meaning "Those who Camp by the Door" or "Wanderers")notable persons: Sitting BullSihasapa (Sihásapa, "Blackfoot Sioux,"[10] not to be confused with the Algonquian-speaking Piegan Blackfeet)Miniconjou (Mnikȟówožu, "Those who Plant by Water")[10]notable persons: Lone Horn, Touch the CloudsBrulé (French translation of Sičháŋǧu, "Burned Thigh")[10]Sans Arc (French translation of Itázipčho, "Those Without Bows")[10]Two Kettles (Oóhenupa, "Two Boilings")[10]In popular mediaFile:Sioux buffalo dance, 1894.ogvVideo clip of a dance performed by a Sioux tribe from Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. This is part of a group of films constituting the first appearance of Native Americans in motion picturesThe Richard Harris film A Man Called Horse and its two sequels are fictional accounts of Sioux peopleThe HBO movie Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee depicts the relocation and reservations of the people from the Sioux perspective, based on the book by Dee Brown.The films Dances with Wolves and Thunderheart contain fictional depictions of the Sioux People.Notable SiouxHistoricalChiefs Red Cloud and American Horse (1891)Running Antelope, a Hunkpapa Lakota Chief, depicted on the US 1899 $5 silver certificate.Šóta (Old Chief Smoke) — an original Oglala Lakota head chiefSiŋté Glešká (Spotted Tail) — Brulé chief who resisted joining Red Cloud's WarThaóyate Dúta (Little Crow/His Red Nation) — Mdewakanton Dakota chief and warriorTȟatȟáŋka Íyotake (Sitting Bull) — Famous Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy manTȟašúŋke Witkó (Crazy Horse) — Famous Oglala Lakota warriorMaȟpíya Ičáȟtagye (Touch the Clouds) – Minneconjou Lakota chief and warriorMaȟpíya Lúta (Red Cloud) — Famous Oglala Lakota chief and spokespersonHeȟáka Sápa (Black Elk) — Famous Oglala Lakota medicine and holy manIté Omáǧažu (Rain-in-the-Face) — Hunkpapa Lakota war chiefTȟáȟča Hušté (Lame Deer) — Mineconju Lakota holy man and spiritual preserverWí Sápa (Black Moon) — Miniconjou Lakota chiefMatȟó Héȟloǧeča (Hollow Horn Bear) — Sicangu (Brulé) Lakota leaderPhizí (Gall) — Hunkpapa Lakota war chiefÓgle Lúta (Red Shirt) — Oglala Lakota warrior and chiefInkpáduta (Scarlet Point/Red End) — Wahpekute Dakota war chiefWaŋbdí Tháŋka (Big Eagle) — Mdewakanton Dakota chiefTamaha (One Eye/Standing Moose) — Mdewekanton Dakota chiefÓta Kté (Luther Standing Bear/Plenty Kill) — Oglala Lakota writer and actorNúŋp Kaȟpá (Two Strike) — Sicangu Lakota chiefČhetáŋ Sápa (Black Hawk) — Itázipčho Lakota ledger artistTȟatȟóka Íŋyaŋke (Running Antelope) — Hunkpapa Lakota chiefMatȟó Watȟákpe (John Grass/Charging Bear) — Sihasapa Lakota chiefTȟatȟáŋka Ská (White Bull) — Miniconjou Lakota warrior and nephew of Sitting BullWaŋblí Kté (Kill Eagle) — Sihasapa Lakota warrior and leaderŠúŋkawakȟáŋ Tȟó (Blue Horse) — Oglala chief, warrior, educator and statesmanMatȟó Wayúhi (Conquering Bear) — Sičháŋǧu Lakota chiefČhetáŋ Kiŋyáŋ (Flying Hawk) — Oglala Lakota chief, philosopher, and historianMatȟó Wanáȟtake (Kicking Bear) — Oglala born Miniconjou Lakota warrior and chiefUŋpȟáŋ Glešká (Spotted Elk/Big Foot) — Miniconjou Lakota chiefHé Waŋžíča (Lone Horn) — Miniconjou Lakota chiefKȟaŋǧí Yátapi (Crow King/Medicine Bag That Burns) — Hunkpapa Lakota war chiefWičháša Tȟáŋkala (Little Big Man/Charging Bear) — Oglala Lakota WarriorŠúŋka Khúčiyela (Low Dog) — Oglala Lakota chief and warriorWašíčuŋ Tȟašúŋke (American Horse) ("The Younger") — Oglala Lakota ChiefWašíčuŋ Tȟašúŋke (American Horse) ("The Elder") — Oglala Lakota ChiefTȟašúŋke Kȟokípȟapi (Young Man Afraid Of His Horses) — Oglala Lakota ChiefIštáȟba (Sleepy Eye) — Sisseton Dakota chiefOhíyes’a (Charles Eastman) — Author, physician and reformerColonel Gregory "Pappy" Boyington — World War II Fighter Ace and Medal of Honor recipient; 1/4 SiouxCharging Thunder (1877–1929), Blackfoot Sioux chief who was part of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in 1903, but remained in England when the show returned to America. He married Josephine, an American horse trainer who had just given birth to their first child, Bessie, and together they settled in Darwen, before moving to Gorton. His name became George Edward Williams, after registering with the British immigration authorities to enable him to find work. Williams ended up working at the Belle Vue Zoo as an elephant keeper. He died from pneumonia on July 28, 1929. His interment was at Gorton's cemetery.Óta Kté (Luther Standing Bear) — Author, educator, philosopher and actorZiŋtkála-Šá (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) — Author, educator, musician and political activistContemporaryWoodrow Keeble, Medal of Honor recipient.Contemporary Sioux people are listed under the tribes to which they belong.Category:Sioux peopleAssiniboine peopleLakotaHunkpapaOglalaSicanguDakota peopleSisseton Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Indian ReservationWoodrow W. KeebleBy individual tribeAssiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian ReservationCheyenne River Sioux Tribe of the Cheyenne River ReservationCrow Creek Sioux Tribe of the Crow Creek ReservationFlandreau Santee Sioux TribeLower Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule ReservationRosebud Sioux Tribe of the Rosebud Indian ReservationShakopee Mdewakanton Sioux CommunitySisseton Wahpeton OyateStanding Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South DakotaYankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota

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